How to Build a Warp Drive using SR Theory ...
Author: Mark Fiorentino
In this chapter we will work through the logic of what Super Relativity is and how it can be applied to create a spatial bias drive. A spatial bias drive can be used to propel a space craft to the speed of light and perhaps beyond. Without a doubt this is one of the most exciting chapters in the book.
For all of the physicists who just read the statement made above about going faster than the speed of light. Please calm down. I am very familiar with the rules of both Special and General Relativity, which state that we cannot travel faster than light. Be patient, because in this article I will spell out in plain language how this may be possible. So this is going to be really good.
If you want to travel to Proxima Centauri, which is the nearest star to our sun and is about 4.22 light-years away, it would take thousands of years to get there using conventional rocket powered space craft. For example, if we look at the Voyager spacecraft which is on an interstellar mission, traveling away from the Sun at a rate of 17.3 km/s, it would take 73,000 years to arrive at Proxima Centauri, at this rate of speed. With our current technology, using ion propulsion systems, it would be impossible to travel at the speed of light, as this would violate Special Relativity. However, if it were possible to do with the current systems, it would still take an impractical 4.22 years to arrive! Therefore, if we, as a planetary culture expect to explore the vast regions of this Universe, we will have to do much better than rocket powered or some other crude ion propulsion system vehicles, as these methods of propulsion will not get us much farther than our own solar system.
So you ask ... How can Super Relativity get us to other star systems within in a reasonable amount of time? Simply put, SR Theory changes the rules of space. More accurately put, SR Theory reveals that the rules of space and the constants, like the speed of light that we hold so dear to us are in fact not constant.
As you may recall from reading the chapter called "The Spatial Properties and Methods", located earlier in this book. The thing we call outer space is considered, by SR Theory to be an object and a medium ... the mediator of the primary forces..
SR Theory states that by applying an intense magnetic field to outer space, that space will be biased so as to cause an alteration or modification of its basic properties. Magnetic fields deform space, by rotating which causes it to stretch. The stretching of space causes the spatial properties to shift. One of the axioms of SR theory is that space has a finite force potential capability. For example if gravity intensifies beyond a certain threshold value a gravitational singularity is created.
Space becomes completed dominated by Gravity and can only exhibit that property. Its ability to maintain an electrostatic or magnetic field will be diminished greatly or eliminated completely. With this type of spatial bias, spatial density increases and spatial tension decreases causing the speed of light to decrease.
SR Theory Postulate 2
The Speed of Light is a function of spatial density and tension.
If this assumption is true, then the speed of light is no longer a constant and depends on how intense gravity is in the region of space that light is passing through. Over time, we should see a change in its numerical value. It follows that if the Universe is expanding, the value for the speed of light will increase. Conversely, if it is collapsing the value will be decreasing.
For more information on the Cosmological Implications and predictions for the Universe using SR Theory please see the Chapter Cosmological Implications of SR Theory.
The bottom line of all this is that SR Theory predicts that this transformation exists and that it can be used to produce a Slip Wave or Spatial Bias Field, which is a specially shaped ultra intense magnetic field.
Shown below is the graph that reveals how the Transformation Equation effects space when an intense magnetic field is applied.
This chart clearly demonstrates the cancelling effect of the gravitational field when a region of space is biased by using an intense magnetic field.
The key to achieving propulsion using this type of spatial bias drive lies in having a good understanding of the medium of space and equally important, of what makes a photon move as it does. Unbelievably, even to this day, the Theory of Relativity, Quantum Theory and String Theory have all failed to tell you anything about the structure of either space or the photon. Fortunately, SR Theory explains both and because of the profound understanding of those objects the discovery of the Slip Wave has been achieved. The basic structure of how to create a Slip Wave was revealed by the knowledge of how a photon is constructed. All we have to do is simulate the electromagnetic field shape of the photon, which is no easy task as we shall find out later in this chapter. Shown below is the waveform that we have to simulate. In Super Relativity Theory, the photon is considered to be its own anti-particle which means that it is literally composed of equal parts of opposite charge. The two components are connected back to back. This causes the photon to travel in a definite direction and most importantly, allows it to travel in straight line.
Picture provided by Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_radiation
The first part of the sine wave is generated by the positive charge component of the photon. This equates to the anti-particle half. The second part is the negative component of the wave form which I consider to be the ordinary matter component. This will become important later in the chapter.
I will now briefly outline the characteristics of the photon, before moving on to discuss the Slip Wave in more detail. All I’ll say for now is that its waveform looks identical to that of the photon, whose physical properties will be used to construct the Slip Wave Field. This technique of emulating nature is not new. Leonardo Da Vinci studied birds to learn about flight ... so did the Wright brothers and we will be attempting the same technique here as well.
The important questions to ask is why does the Photon move and why does the speed of light have the value that it has? The answer to these questions has been right in front of our eyes for centuries. There has been a lot of good work done by scientists as far back as Descartes concerning these questions. Up until the early 1990s there was a lot of effort put forth into answering foundational questions such as the two I just stated. Most of the work concerned the relationship between what fields are and how they relate to the aether. After reading and studing the documents of Newton Maxwell Lorentz Faraday and others I found what I beleive is the answer to the questions above.
Here is the secret. Please follow closely this line of thought that I am about to present.
According to what I have discovered the speed of light its movement and its speed are determined by its interaction with space itself. There exists a set of two interface rules that determines how light behaves.
Rule 1. The value for the velocity of the speed of light is determined by particle interface to the the medium that light travels through. There are two components parts for this interface.
1. The electrical and magnetic characterisitics of the medium. There are two properties of the medium (space) which determines how fast light will move. The two properties are the vacuum permittivity and vacuum permeability. By the definition is wikipedia: "In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity is the measure of the resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a medium. In other words, permittivity is a measure of how an electric field affects, and is affected by, a dielectric medium. Thus, permittivity relates to a material's ability to transmit (or "permit") an electric field." Also by the definition in Wikipedia, "in electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself. Vacuum permeability is derived from production of a magnetic field by an electric current or by a moving electric charge and in all other formulas for magnetic-field production in a vacuum." Finally by wikipedia definition: "In classical physics, light is described as a type of electromagnetic wave. The classical behaviour of the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell's equations, which predict that the speed c with which electromagnetic waves (such as light) propagate through the vacuum is related to the electric constant ε0 and the magnetic constant μ0 by the equation c = 1/√ε0μ0. To sum all of this up for you, these properties determine how fast space can react to and transmit and electromagnetic wave.
2. The second component that helps determine the speed of light or and particle for that matter is the charge balance of the particle. In other words how neutral is the charge of a particle. The more neutral the particle the less it is inhibited and interacts with space. The photon is essentailly a neutrally charged particle. So it travels at the a velocity of 299,792,458 metres per second. If there were to exist a more equally balanced particle a particle that's construction is so that it has a more balanced charge than the photon it should by my theory travel faster than the speed of light. In the news today it has been announced that the neutrino has been found to being traveling at a speed greater than the speed of light. This tells me that the neutrino has a physical construction in which the amount of neagaitive to positive charge is more balanced and therefore more neutral than the photon. This matches what my theory predicts should happen.
Rule 2. The central cause for the motion of any particle including light.
It is important to understand the photon. Its first property is that it never stops moving. This perpetual motion is a very important fact that has been consistently ignored. In SR theory a photon has a no mass because it is composed of equal amounts of opposite charge totalling zero. This is in slight disagreement with the current mainstream thinking as photons are thought to be massless and chargeless, and this is in my opinion, a misnomer. The proton’s zero total does not mean an absence of charge, but rather that the charge is balanced. This is a very important distinction. It is what makes everything happen. The motion and spin that are the key characteristics of the photon are caused by the electrostatic field, producing the spatial deformation that affects its geometry, creating the imbalanced pressure gradient that is the precursor to movement.
*** Work in progress ***
Simply put, the photon is nothing more than a twist of space composed of one part electron charge and one part positron charge. It is its own anti-particle being composed of matter and anti-matter.
The other component of the Slip Wave is the magnetic field intensity. Not only do we have to shape the field properly, but we also have to use a sufficient field strength of several hundred Teslas to even have a chance to make this idea work.
Assuming there is a way to accomplish this special field shape, an space craft must then be constructed using the proper geometric shape and then surrounded with this shape. This technique comprises what is known as a Spatial Bias Drive.
The ship must have no wings or other type of extremities, so cylinders, spheres and cone shapes would work well. Why? Because the space ship will have to be completely enveloped by the specialized magnetic Slip Wave field. These particular shapes will easily accommodate the coils in the hull of the craft. This is essential when creating the Slip Wave.
Methods of Construction
The most common definition for the word positronics comes from Isaac Asimov’s fictional series about humanoid robots, which have a positronic brain. This artificial intelligence is provided by a central computer, which provides the robot with its human like consciousness. This is not what I am talking about. The other definition is ‘of or pertaining to positrons’. As positronic is analogous to ordinary everyday electronics, we are using positrons for current flow, rather than electrons. There are as yet many hurdles to overcome using positronics as a method to control the flow of positrons which is anti-matter. It would also be challenging to construct circuit boards, cabling and other materials, that could be used to conduct them, because of their anti-matter properties. There are no readily available sources of macroscopic objects made of antimatter and even if there were, handling them would be virtually impossible. So although this method would be desirable, it simply is not feasible at this time
Method 1 - Positronics
I first need to define what I mean by positronics. The most common definition for this term comes from Isaac Asimov. Positronics is to serve as a central computer for a robot, and, in some unspecified way, to provide it with a form of consciousness recognizable to humans. This is not what I am talking about. This has nothing to do with what positronics is as it is a purely fictional concept. The other definition is of or pertaining to positrons, so what I mean is that positronics is the analogue to ordinary everyday electronics except we are using positrons for current flow not electrons. There are, I think many problems or hurdles to overcome using positronics as a method to control the flow of positrons. The main problem is that positrons are anti-matter. It would be extremely difficult to construct materials, circuit boards and cabling that could be used to conduct positrons. The reason why is that they would have to be made out of anti-matter. There is no readily available source of macroscopic objects made of antimatter and if there was it would be impossible to handle and work with. So there is really no way to get a working system using positronics.
Method 2 – Super Conducting gas or Evacuated Tubes.
With this method, we still use positrons to form the second half of the Slip Wave waveform. They are created, then fed into a super conductor ion channel, which is much easier to construct than the positronic coil.
The most practical technique for the electron tube would be to use a super conducting, gas filled tube or a room temperature superconductor. Apply a high voltage bias to the ends of the super conducting coils as this creates the first half of the waveform. The next adjacent coil will be the positron coil, which is more difficult to construct. While it is relatively easy to get access to a large current flow of electrons, it is much more difficult to obtain an equally large amount of positrons.
One possible solution would be a condensed version of a positron source from a Betatron X-Ray Emitter. This emitter can be used to produce an ion column, which can then be directed into a positron channel. In order to construct the channel coil, we would have to use an evacuated tube with a high voltage potential on the ends. This would force the positrons to travel along the electrostatic lines of flux within the tube. This then should remove the need to direct the positron flow using magnetic fields as these would most likely interfere with the second portion of the specialized field that we are trying to create. In order for this technology to exist, we have to develop a method to conduct both high current density electron and positron streams. Once we achieve this, we would then have a Slip Wave drive.
The only difference between the Slip Wave (Spatial Bias Field) and the photon is that the power and size of the field is much, much larger. The emitted magnetic wave will emerge from the craft as a standard sine wave – the first 180 degrees being sourced by the electron current flow, with a synchronized second pulse of positronic current travelling in the same direction being emitted quickly thereafter. This simple pattern then repeats itself.
Forward thrust is obtained by increasing the pulse rate of current flow, thereby shortening the duration of the sine wave. When the craft moves slowly, the wave form is of extremely low frequency. As the vehicular motion increases, the frequency also increases and the field is intensified. This allows space to stretch and thereby allows and creates faster than light travel, as the mechanical distortion modifies 3 key properties of space – permittivity, permeability and the refraction index.
This physical modification affects the Lorentz transformations because once these component properties of space change, time dilation and the value for the speed of light will change. This will allow a space craft to travel at extremely high speed and not suffer the twin paradox problem as the flow of time can be balanced to match the inertial frame on Earth.
If this theory is correct, then hypothetically speaking, any supposed visitations to Earth by extraterrestrials will most likely be in vehicles using a version of a Slip Field generator. Therefore it should be easy to detect their Slip Wave signature using a sensitive magnetometer, hooked to a digital sampling oscilloscope. The captured waveform would be a pure sine wave magnetic field. In order to remove any possible interference from power line transformers, the sensing device should use a notch filter tuned to 60 cycles per second to eliminate any ambient noise.
In order to create a Slip Wave field that both cancels the effect of gravity and provides thrust, we must create an extremely intense magnetic field, which surrounds the space ship and makes it appear as a giant photon. This will take an enormous amount of energy in the form of continuous electron and positron flow through the ion channel coils. Without having the transformation formula at hand, I can only guesstimate the energy requirements needed to generate the field strength and flux density to make this happen. However, I would imagine we would need at least 300 hundred teslas.
Other considerations for the craft and for safety of flight should also be considered. With magnetic fields this strong special shielding for the interior of the ship will need to be used to protect the inner hull and the passengers from injury.
The Slip Wave is an ultra intense magnetic field that completely surrounds the hull of a spacecraft. This does 2 things to space itself.
1. The field around the space ship is shaped in such a way that it creates a bubble in space, forcing the ship forward in the same way that a photon is forced forward through space.
2. An interesting by product of this type of intense magnetic field is that the rules for space will be modified according to the field transformation equation predicted to exist in Super Relativity Theory. According to the theory spatial tension determines what the speed of light will be. When this tension increases, the value for the speed of light will shift upward.
This will also have an effect on the Lorentzian Time Dilation equation of Special Relativity. Therefore it should be possible to travel even faster than the speed of light. Furthermore, it may make it possible to travel in real time without the slowing of time relative to non-moving observers.