Faster than Light Neutrino Explanation
This paper describes the reasoning behind why Super Relativity predicts that neutrinos may in fact be moving faster than light. It also provides detailed answers to the fundamental questions of the central cause of mass and of particle motion, and I will put forward my view of the mechanical explanation for the aether.
There is great excitement about the recent breaking news which is currently captivating the world of physics. If the discovery that neutrinos may be traveling faster than the speed of light is proven to be correct, this could have many major ramifications for science. The most serious of which would be that scientists would have good reason to believe that the current formulation for Special Relativity is incorrect.
This is a very troubling prospect, as the theory has been tested countless times in many experiments and it has been verified in every case. The theory of Special Relativity forms the very foundation for our understanding of the Universe.
In this article I am going to put forward an explanation regarding why neutrinos may be traveling faster than light, and why I believe that the principles and formulation for Special Relativity are essentially correct. Only a slight modification is needed for the formulas of Special Relativity to be universally correct in any situation.
In my previous articles, I have always said that Special Relativity is correct but for one very important detail, which is the assumption that the speed of light is a Universal Constant. Light speed according to Super Relativity is determined as a function between the interaction of the elastic solid that is space, and the geometric shape and configuration of the particles that move within space. This shall be referred to as the interface.
Anytime we use constants in equations, we must be very sure that we understand how they were derived and exactly what they represent. Technically speaking for light and all particles heavier than light (i.e. having a mass greater than the photon), using the speed of light as a constant will still give a good approximation of reality.
Before continuing, I ask the reader to bear with me, as I am about to present ideas and concepts that may be seen as disdainful of established physicists and scientists, so please keep an open mind.
The concept of the aether should now be reconsidered by physicists, because a superluminal particle has now been discovered. Since we are facing the stark situation where everything that modern day science has been so sure about may now be wrong, perhaps it would be prudent to consider a different approach. Therefore the discovery of faster than light neutrinos should make us all give due consideration to new ideas. Everyone should remain open to these new directions. If what I am about to introduce is correct, we can create a technology that will allow us to break the light speed barrier many times over. That should be worth your time and consideration.
So why do particles move and what determines their velocities? Let’s go back in time to the early 1600s and Rene Descartes, a great philosopher and mathematician, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, and then shortly after that Isaac Newton, the father of modern day physics. They all pursued varying ideas about how material objects, such as subatomic particles and force fields worked. For the most part they tried using a mechanical explanation based upon an underlying plenum or aether.
Others followed in their footsteps, including Thomas Young, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, Michael Faraday, James Clerk Maxwell, Hendrick Antoon Lorentz and Albert Einstein. These impressive scientists are still giants in the field of physics and scientific philosophy. They all believed that there had to be some type of underlying physical structure that mediates force – (action at a distance), which is also the stage for discrete quanta.
The bottom line is that they used the aether concept to create mathematics which is still being used, to successfully describe wave optics, gravity and electromagnetic theory. All of the math and theory has been very successful in advancing what we know about the Universe.
Up until the year 1905, the aether theory was widely accepted. Then Special Relativity and the Michelson-Morley experiment put an abrupt end to the concept. It has been recently discovered that Albert Einstein had knowledge of the M&M experiment, and may have been in contact with Michelson while he was in the process of developing the Special Theory of Relativity. This is of great importance, as he basically knew that the results of that experiment were going to have a major effect on the acceptance of his theory of Special Relativity. Since Einstein most likely knew that the experiment was going to confirm the constancy of the speed of light and disprove the existence of the aether, I believe he may have chosen to deliberately place a statement into his theory that disassociated it from the luminiferous aether. This was done, despite the fact that the basis of his transformations were built on an aether theory. Below is the quote from his original paper, On the electrodynamics of moving bodies
“The introduction of a “luminiferous ether” will prove to be superfluous inasmuch as the view here to be developed will not require an “absolutely stationary space” provided with special properties, nor assign a velocity-vector to a point of the empty space in which electromagnetic processes take place.”
It is highly possible that by knowing in advance his theory was going to agree with the M&M experiment findings, Einstein cheated a little. Unfortunately, the null result of the experiment appeared to disprove the aether concept. A concept that had played a major role in the development of the equations for both Maxwell’s Theory and Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity. The net result of all of this was that in 1905, aether theory died.
Shortly before the results of the M&M Experiment were made available to the public, Einstein published the theory of Special Relativity which predicted the constancy of the speed of light. Thus, the M&M results helped to legitimize Special Relativity. Later, Einstein tried to revive aether theory in his famous paper Aether and the Theory of Relativity published on May 5th, 1920.
In an address at the University of Leyden in 1920, Einstein said, “Thus the endeavor toward a unified view of the nature of forces leads to the hypothesis of an aether. This hypothesis, to be sure, did not at first bring with it any advance in the theory of gravitation or in physics generally, so that it became customary to treat Newton's law of force as an axiom not further reducible. But the aether hypothesis was bound always to play some part in physical science, even if at first only a latent part. When in the first half of the nineteenth century the far-reaching similarity was revealed which subsists between the properties of light and those of elastic waves in ponderable bodies, the ether hypothesis found fresh support. It appeared beyond question that light must be interpreted as a vibratory process in an elastic, inert medium filling up universal space. It also seemed to be a necessary consequence of the fact that light is capable of polarisation that this medium, the ether, must be of the nature of a solid body, because transverse waves are not possible in a fluid, but only in a solid. Thus the physicists were bound to arrive at the theory of the ``quasi-rigid'' luminiferous ether, the parts of which can carry out no movements relatively to one another except the small movements of deformation which correspond to light-waves.”
The paragraph above lays out evidence for the existence of a material substance, as the mediator of both particle interaction and force. The first sentence in particular says that the aether is most likely to be at the heart of the unification of all forces and it may be the central cause of action at a distance, and an ultimate explanation for a unified field theory. In fact it is difficult to explain how light, fields and forces like gravity, magnetic and electrostatic fields could be propagated through space without the existence of some sort of elastic solid. Einstein also makes the excellent point that light has a wave like property, which suggests that something obviously must be waving in order for this to be possible. The explanation for the wave like property in light is similar to that of elastic waves in ponderable bodies. He then points out that light must be interpreted as a vibratory process in elastic medium. Furthermore, he argues that light is also a transverse wave and this is possible only in a solid. This, I believe, is the correct interpretation of our physical reality and demonstrates that there is evidence to prove the existence of the aether.
Einstein also asserted that, “This theory also called the theory of the stationary luminiferous aether moreover found a strong support in an experiment which is also of fundamental importance in the special theory of relativity, the experiment of Fizeau, from which one was obliged to infer that the luminiferous aether does not take part in the movements of bodies. The phenomenon of aberration also favoured the theory of the quasi-rigid ether. The development of the theory of electricity along the path opened up by Maxwell and Lorentz gave the development of our ideas concerning the aether quite a peculiar and unexpected turn. For Maxwell himself the aether indeed still had properties which were purely mechanical, although of a much more complicated kind than the mechanical properties of tangible solid bodies. But neither Maxwell nor his followers succeeded in elaborating a mechanical model for the aether which might furnish a satisfactory mechanical interpretation of Maxwell's laws of the electro-magnetic field. The laws were clear and simple, the mechanical interpretations clumsy and contradictory. Almost imperceptibly the theoretical physicists adapted themselves to a situation which, from the standpoint of their mechanical programme, was very depressing.”
Here, he supplies further evidence that convinces him of the existence of the aether. Additional evidence comes from Fizeau’s experiment, which shows that the aether does not take part in the movement of bodies. The rest of Einstein’s statement above mentions the development of our ideas about the properties and characteristics of the aether coming from scientists who studied electricity, and in particular from Maxwell and Lorentz.
The key issue that was troubling to these scientists was the mechanical interpretation or model for the aether, as there was no suitable explanation for the phenomena of electricity or light. Somehow although the mathematical laws were simple and clear, the mechanical interpretations were not. This is still the key problematic issue that existed then and still exists today. The most important, fundamental problem in physics today is concerned with the matter of finding the proper interpretation for the mathematics which correctly predicts the behavior of phenomena. Maxwell’s equations of the electromagnetic field are correct and valid. They serve as an example of using a field theory that employs differential equations that describe electric and magnetic fields that are continuous or continuously differential to some order. Unfortunately there remains different ways of interpreting what the mathematics is physically explaining.
There needs to be an explanation about the details of how and why particles behave the way they do, and how force, which is action at a distance mechanically works. From the explanations provided in this paper, we should be able to provide additional mathematics that complement both Maxwell’s equations, and Lorentz’s transformations. These laws were developed using a sensible mechanical concept and the math and theorys provided by Maxwell and Lorentz has been supported by experiment.
Maxwell most likely had the correct interpretation of reality and the aether, but he lacked the exact specifications for the mechanical details of particle geometry. For the moment, let’s get back to key elements in Einstein address at Leyden, as they contain elements which are important to my discussion.
“They were particularly influenced by the electro-dynamical investigations of Heinrich Hertz. For whereas they previously had required of a conclusive theory that it should content itself with the fundamental concepts which belong exclusively to mechanics (e.g. densities, velocities, deformations, stresses) they gradually accustomed themselves to admitting electric and magnetic force as fundamental concepts side by side with those of mechanics, without requiring a mechanical interpretation for them. Thus the purely mechanical view of nature was gradually abandoned. But this change led to a fundamental dualism which in the long-run was insupportable. A way of escape was now sought in the reverse direction, by reducing the principles of mechanics to those of electricity, and this especially as confidence in the strict validity of the equations of Newton's mechanics was shaken by the experiments with b-rays and rapid cathode rays.”
In the time leading up to this subtle but important paradigm shift, all theoretical development was based on logical and sensible fundamental mechanics. However, the lack of a detailed interpretation for the specific mode of operation and behavior of particles, has led to the abandonment of the mechanical view of nature. It is important to note that some people do not interpret electric and magnetic properties as being mechanical. That is the dominant opinion of physicists in this time. The aether for Maxwell still had properties which were purely mechanical although his model was much more complicated than the Super Relativity Model. The problem is that no one has ever succeeded in accounting for the stress in this medium or explained how it is maintained. This is done in the theory of Super Relativity, which simply states that force fields occur within an all-pervading medium, the forces of magnetism, electrostatic and gravitational fields are caused by stresses in this medium. The three primary forces are conveyed by the consecutive parts of the medium over a distance. This occurs through the solid stationary aether, at the speed of light.
The abandonment of the mechanical view of nature was augmented by the advancement of Quantum Theory. This is the most crucial error in modern day physics. In order for us to progress in physics we must come to recognize that we cannot explain all of the mysteries of nature with Quantum Mechanics. We can only use Quantum Mechanics to predict behavior via a statistical method, which is a method that cannot be used to explain how reality works physically. The fact that these two theories are so fundamentally opposed and yet still share a large field of truth common to both is a fact that has great philosophical importance. We cannot fully appreciate this mystery until we reach a higher scientific altitude. From this vantage point we will be able to observe the true relation between these two seemingly opposing views.
“This dualism still confronts us in unextenuated form in the theory of Hertz, where matter appears not only as the bearer of velocities, kinetic energy, and mechanical pressures, but also as the bearer of electromagnetic fields. Since such fields also occur in vacuo i.e. in free aether the aether also appears as bearer of electromagnetic fields. The aether appears indistinguishable in its functions from ordinary matter. Within matter it takes part in the motion of matter and in empty space it has everywhere a velocity; so that the aether has a definitely assigned velocity throughout the whole of space. There is no fundamental difference between Hertz's aether and ponderable matter (which in part subsists in the aether). The Hertz theory suffered not only from the defect of ascribing to matter and aether, on the one hand mechanical states, and on the other hand electrical states, which do not stand in any conceivable relation to each other; it was also at variance with the result of Fizeau's important experiment on the velocity of the propagation of light in moving fluids, and with other established experimental results.”
The dualism Einstein talks about here is an important point he points out the differences of two different aether concepts. Super Relativity resolves the duality issue. Super Relativity Theory is a combination of both the Hertz’s aether and that of ponderable matter. Super Relativity states there is only one real material object that exists in nature. That object is the solid aether material. Particles are different configurations that exist within the aether and are not separate from it. All particles exist as spatial deformations which are permanent spatial inversions composed of various proportions of positive and negative charge. Both gravitational and magnetic fields are generated by the motion of electrostatic charges.
What really hurt classical physics and the aether theory was the discovery of Planck’s constant, which describes light as a quantum action. The idea of the quantum object establishes light as a separate quantity and an isolated object in space but this concept is not in harmony with the already established wavelike properties of light. This separate quantum object concept is also in conflict with later discoveries concerning the entanglement of particles such as the photon. These entanglement characteristics suggest a physical connection between particles and therefore a physical connection can only occur as a direct result of a continuous medium existing between the entangled objects. The simple mechanical model of Super Relativity states that everything is connected and within the underlying plenum. Therefore Super Relativity incorporates both aspects of light by saying that the corpuscular theory of light accounts for the transmission across space. It does so by invoking mechanical properties while traveling within the stationary aether medium which is deformed into the particle as its geometric configuration moves. At the same time the undulatory nature of light is accounted for, by the stress imposed upon the medium by the particles’ electromagnetic properties as they move.
There are also subtle differences as well as the commonalities, between the old ideas of the aether as it relates to mass and energy, and the slightly revised concepts of Super Relativity, which states that the medium itself consists of propagation potentials that stem directly from electric energy. The electrical field is the primary cause of particle motion via the stretching deformation it generates within the spatial medium. This stretching creates an asymmetry in the spatial density of the geometry of a particle. This in turn produces a pressure wave causing motion. Once the particle begins to move, the secondary magnetic wave is created as a by-product of the moving charge. This process forms the electromagnetic wave. With this realization we find ourselves arriving at the founding principle of Super Relativity that states gravitational fields are also created by the motion of electromagnetic objects. This is what Einstein was working on in his final years, he was seeking the unification between electromagnetism and gravity. At the time he was working on the problem he did not have the advanced knowledge of all the particles that are known to exist today. When Einstein was laboring on the Unified Field Theory he believed that his geometrized relativistic theory of the gravitational field demanded again unification with the concept of the electromagnetic field. Super Relativity Theory agrees with Einstein’s concept and achieves a field unification by demonstrating how the motion of particles generates both the magnetic and gravitational fields.
The philosophical concept of Super Relativity for the working mechanics of the Universe is so simple and eloquent that it can be summed up in just a few short sentences.
Basically, all matter and energy consist of various configurations or spatial inversions that are what we call electrical charge. These inversions form pressure waves in the aether medium. The pressure waves are what Super Relativity calls Slip Waves. The movement of the electrostatic charges through the aether medium cause a secondary spatial deformation as a reaction to the moving charge. The secondary reaction is a literal rotation of space surrounding the moving charge. This rotation of space is the magnetic field. The final principle of Super Relativity concerns the accelerated motion of an unbalanced charge. This particular motion of a particle causes the third spatial deformation which is a contraction of space surrounding the accelerating unbalanced charge. There is also one special principle that completes the mechanical model for Super Relativity. The special case is the motion of non-accelerated balanced charges. The linear motion of balanced charges such as that generated by particles like the photon and the neutrino generates little to no gravitational field but it does generate a magnetic field.
Therefore in Super Relativity there are three types of geometries or deformations. The first geometry is the geometry of the dynamical field of General Relativity. The second geometry is the particle configuration geometry whose movement within the aether causes to a lesser extent the contraction of space. This contraction is the gravitational field described by Einstein’s gravitational field equations. The third type of deformation is the stretching of space which is caused to a greater extent by the motion of electrostatic charge. When any charge moves through space there is a torsional deformation as a reaction to the motion of the charge. This is the magnetic field.
Einstein went on to discuss Lorentz’s contributions, the transformations used in Special Relativity.
“Such was the state of things when H. A. Lorentz entered upon the scene. He brought theory into harmony with experience by means of a wonderful simplification of theoretical principles. He achieved this, the most important advance in the theory of electricity since Maxwell, by taking from aether its mechanical, and from matter its electromagnetic qualities. As in empty space, so too in the interior of material bodies, the aether, and not matter viewed atomistically, was exclusively the seat of electromagnetic fields. According to Lorentz the elementary particles of matter alone are capable of carrying out movements; their electromagnetic activity is entirely confined to the carrying of electric charges. Thus Lorentz succeeded in reducing all electromagnetic happenings to Maxwell's equations for free space.”
This paragraph is important in understanding our physical reality, as it shows that even back then both Einstein and Lorentz understood what the theory of Super Relativity says today. Einstein’s analysis of Lorentz’s theory can be summarized as follows:
If we confine the electromagnetic field, which in reality is a property of charge, to the Aether (Super Relativity says that the electromagnetic field is a direct result of moving charge), and then assign the mechanics of inertial motion to Matter, (according to Super Relativity, inertia is the result of unbalanced charge in accelerated motion), then the property of charge affected to matter is in reality one of the aether affected to matter. Therefore, the real property of matter is its mechanical motion through the aether which is in effect the property of the charge carriers.
Thus, the aether must bear the electromagnetic field, just as matter bears kinetic energy. If this is true, that would mean that charge is affected to, or bears upon matter and therefore they are linked in some way. Even in those early days, Einstein and Lorenz knew that somehow electromagnetism and gravity had to be linked, and this is exactly what Super Relativity says. What the scientists lacked back then, was the knowledge of sub-atomic particles that we know about today. If they had the additional information, (in particular the knowledge of the existence of the quarks the primary generators of mass in the Super Relativity model) they would have been able to construct a mechanical model and discern the pattern which lies within the standard model. Although the embedding of the pattern is subtle the Standard Model for Particles reveals that all unbalanced charged fundamental particles, have mass, whereas balanced charged particles have little to no mass. This provides strong evidence for the Super Relativity Theory Model. As a result, the road to unification is proving that electromagnetism and gravity are different manifestations of a single mechanism.
“As to the mechanical nature of the Lorentzian ether, it may be said of it, in a somewhat playful spirit, that immobility is the only mechanical property of which it has not been deprived by H. A. Lorentz. It may be added that the whole change in the conception of the aether which the special theory of relativity brought about, consisted in taking away from the aether its last mechanical quality, namely, its immobility. How this is to be understood will forthwith be expounded.”
This sums up why we lost faith in the existence of the aether. The Lorentzian aether is stationary with respect to absolute velocities. This is true for what Super Relativity says as well. Unfortunately Einstein and the Michelson & Morley experiment make it appear that Lorentz is wrong. In reality, if we try to measure a difference in the speed of light due to an aether wind, we will not detect it. This fact seems to disprove the concept of a stationary aether, which assumes that a preferred reference frame such as the stationary aether exists. As we have seen from the Michelson and Morley experiment and from Special Relativity when we use inertial frame of reference which is a state of constant, rectilinear motion, as the reference frame to compare to the speed of light, we get a null result for the detection of an aether wind. Therefore we have come to believe that there is no way to detect absolute motion relative to the aether.
Everything stated in the above paragraph is true but only for the special case described by Special Relativity. The special case as described above is what was used in the Michelson and Morley experiment.
The scientists of those times sought a variation in the speed of light by measuring it compared to an inertial reference frame. This was achieved by checking the velocity of light at different times of year while expecting that the earth would be moving in different frames of reference, relative to the aether. They expected to find an aether wind shift as the earth changed direction. No aether wind was detected.
There are two flaws in this experiment, which worked in the favor of Special Relativity and against the possibility of detecting an aether wind.
The proper way to do this experiment would be to use a particle that has mass, such as a proton or an electron. The second improvement would be to use a non-inertial frame of reference, by using a particle with mass and then rotating it in a ring-like particle accelerator such as the one used at Cern. Under these conditions we would be able to detect an aether wind, and the long sought after preferred reference frame. The earth must be traveling with a real or absolute velocity vs. the aether background. We know that the earth moves around the sun, which is revolving along with the rest of the Milky Way about its axis. These two additional velocities should be detectable, because the aether only reveals absolute motion relative to it when we use particles with mass, and when we use absolute motion that causes inertia we should be able to detect an aether wind. Therefore, by redoing the Michelson and Morley in this manner, we should be able to correct the mistakes of the past.
“The space-time theory and the kinematics of the special theory of relativity were modeled on the Maxwell-Lorentz theory of the electromagnetic field. This theory therefore satisfies the conditions of the special theory of relativity, but when viewed from the latter it acquires a novel aspect. For if K be a system of co-ordinates relatively to which the Lorentzian aether is at rest, the Maxwell-Lorentz equations are valid primarily with reference to K. But by the special theory of relativity the same equations without any change of meaning also hold in relation to any new system of co-ordinates K' which is moving in uniform translation relatively to K. Now comes the anxious question: Why must I in the theory distinguish the K system above all K' systems, which are physically equivalent to it in all respects, by assuming that the aether is at rest relatively to the K system? For the theoretician such an asymmetry in the theoretical structure, with no corresponding asymmetry in the system of experience, is intolerable. If we assume the aether to be at rest relatively to K, but in motion relatively to K', the physical equivalence of K and K' seems to me from the logical standpoint, not indeed downright incorrect, but nevertheless inacceptable.”
My discussion above should also be applied as an additional explanation for this quote from Einstein. I would only add that in Super Relativity the aether is stationary relative to all moving frames of reference.
“The next position which it was possible to take up in face of this state of things appeared to be the following. The ether does not exist at all. The electromagnetic fields are not states of a medium, and are not bound down to any bearer, but they are independent realities which are not reducible to anything else, exactly like the atoms of ponderable matter. This conception suggests itself the more readily as, according to Lorentz's theory, electromagnetic radiation, like ponderable matter, brings impulse and energy with it, and as, according to the special theory of relativity, both matter and radiation are but special forms of distributed energy, ponderable mass losing its isolation and appearing as a special form of energy.”
Since it now appears that no inertial system of coordinates could be privileged, there was no aether and therefore no physical or mechanical explanation requiring the aether. This would mean that the electromagnetic field is not a state of stress or deformation of an aether medium. Electromagnetic radiation or wave-like energy fields would have their own existence and space is nothing more than an empty container. This is the way we still think today.
Now a great deal of effort is being placed in the relatively new concept of string theory, which talks about fields and branes that somehow exist in hidden dimensions. It seems to me that this is just another version of an aether - a much more complicated and unlikely version.
“More careful reflection teaches us, however, that the special theory of relativity does not compel us to deny aether. We may assume the existence of an aether; only we must give up ascribing a definite state of motion to it, i.e. we must by abstraction take from it the last mechanical characteristic which Lorentz had still left it. We shall see later that this point of view, the conceivability of which shall at once endeavour to make more intelligible by a somewhat halting comparison, is justified by the results of the general theory of relativity.”
Einstein tells us to consider that Special Relativity does not compel us to deny the existence of the aether. There may still be one, but not with a uniform state of motion. He also stated that General Relativity leads the concept of a dynamical type of aether, whose properties change in the presence of matter or energy.
“Think of waves on the surface of water. Here we can describe two entirely different things. Either we may observe how the undulatory surface forming the boundary between water and air alters in the course of time; or else - with the help of small floats, for instance - we can observe how the position of the separate particles of water alters in the course of time. If the existence of such floats for tracking the motion of the particles of a fluid were a fundamental impossibility in physics - if, in fact, nothing else whatever were observable than the shape of the space occupied by the water as it varies in time - we should have no ground for the assumption that water consists of movable particles. But all the same we could characterize it as a medium.”
This demonstrates what Super Relativity says. Einstein uses the medium of water, which we know in reality is made up of a field of water molecules. This is not the same as the aether medium, but will serve as a good example for revealing how the space-time geometry works. He wants us to imagine a world without the atoms and molecules, but retain the image of the undulations of the waves of the surface of the water. You can observe space bending or deforming in the same way. So we can envision that the electromagnetic and gravitational fields in space are equivalent to the motion of particles of matter in a medium made of water. So you can imagine the surface geometry of the matter field, which in this case is the surface of the water and see the effect or undulation of space. Matter and energy particles are therefore undulations or waves in the medium of the aether.
Einstein continues, “We have something like this in the electromagnetic field. For we may picture the field to ourselves as consisting of lines of force. If we wish to interpret these lines of force to ourselves as something material in the ordinary sense, we are tempted to interpret the dynamic processes as motions of these lines of force, such that each separate line of force is tracked through the course of time. It is well known, however, that this way of regarding the electromagnetic field leads to contradictions.”
“Generalising we must say this: there may be supposed to be extended physical objects to which the idea of motion cannot be applied. They may not be thought of as consisting of particles which allow themselves to be separately tracked through time. In Minkowski's idiom this is expressed as follows: not every extended conformation in the four-dimensional world can be regarded as composed of world threads. The Special Theory of Relativity forbids us to assume the Aether to consist of particles observable through time, but the hypothesis of Aether in itself is not in conflict with the Special Theory of Relativity. Only we must be on our guard against ascribing a state of motion to the Aether.”
These paragraphs are vitally important to Super Relativity Theory. Einstein says that our physical reality or concept of space cannot have the idea of motion ascribed to it. Therefore the idea of a motionless absolute aether is not valid. Super Relativity agrees with this concept only under special conditions that were in effect when the Michelson – Morley experiment was done. Those special conditions are that using balanced or neutrally charged particles such as photons will always yield a null result for detection of an aether wind. That means when we use photons in an attempt to detect an aether wind and an absolute motion relative to the aether we will not be able to detect it. If on the other hand we reconstruct the exact same experiment using particles with mass according to Super Relativity we will be able to detect motion relative to the aether background. Today we currently believe that electromagnetic fields, particles or any type of physical object for that matter, are separate from the empty void of space they reside in. We should not think of the particles as being separately tracked through time.
On the other hand according to Super Relativity particles are a part of space and therefore they affect the space they move through as they move through it. They cause space and time to bend and correspondingly, space influences how particles move within it. So within the Super Relativity paradigm particles move within space. The aether itself never moves but it deforms into the shape of the particle as it moves within space. Therefore particles are made up of aether material and are nothing more than configurations flowing within the solid material. In this way, the hypothesis of the aether is not in conflict with Special Relativity, which along with Super Relativity says that we cannot ascribe a state of motion to the aether in order to compare inertial motion, relative to an absolute stationary background. However we can ascribe absolute motion relative to the aether, when it is of an accelerated fashion that is generated by unbalanced charge particles. This is the essence that Super Relativity extends to Special Relativity by the introduction of a second special case, which bridges Special Relativity to General Relativity and makes it possible to construct a model for a Theory of Everything.
Einstein further added, “Certainly, from the standpoint of the Special Theory of Relativity, the Aether hypothesis appears at first to be an empty hypothesis. In the equations of the electromagnetic field there occur, in addition to the densities of the electric charge, only the intensities of the field. The path of electromagnetic processes in vacuo appears to be completely determined by these equations, uninfluenced by other physical quantities. The electromagnetic fields appear as ultimate, irreducible realities, and at first it seems superfluous to postulate a homogeneous, isotropic Aether-medium, and to envisage electromagnetic fields as states of this medium.”
Super Relativity completely disagrees with this point of view.
“But on the other hand there is a weighty argument to be adduced in favour of the Aether hypothesis. To deny the Aether is ultimately to assume that empty space has no physical qualities whatever. The fundamental facts of mechanics do not harmonize with this view. For the mechanical behavior of a corporeal system hovering freely in empty space depends not only on relative positions (distances) and relative velocities, but also on its state of rotation, which physically may be taken as a characteristic not appertaining to the system in itself. In order to be able to look upon the rotation of the system, at least formally, as something real, Newton objectivizes space. Since he classes his absolute space together with real things, for him rotation relative to an absolute space is also something real. Newton might no less well have called his absolute space "Aether"; what is essential is merely that besides observable objects, another thing, which is not perceptible, must be looked upon as real, to enable acceleration or rotation to be looked upon as something real.”
Acceleration is key to the foundation of the advancements made by The Theory of Super Relativity. Einstein and Newton acknowledged that rotation and acceleration are indicators of observable items, which suggests that space is a material object. Einstein argued that space has physical characteristics because we can detect rotation possibly as a result of aether. In the Theory of Super Relativity, acceleration of massive particles creates the phenomena of both inertia and gravitational field. The pattern in nature is clear, where inertia and gravity are directly associated to acceleration of matter (as unbalanced charge particles) through space. These forces are the most striking examples of how the aether plays a role in the motion of matter within space. It’s merely a matter of acknowledging this concept which will give us the proper interpretation of our physical reality. Einstein realized this at the time of his address, and his theory of General Relativity, as you will see later in this article, supports the idea that space is a physical object.
“It is true that Mach tried to avoid having to accept as real something which is not observable by endeavouring to substitute in mechanics a mean acceleration with reference to the totality of the masses in the universe in place of an acceleration with reference to absolute space. But inertial resistance opposed to relative acceleration of distant masses presupposes action at a distance; and as the modern physicist does not believe that he may accept this action at a distance, he comes back once more, if he follows Mach, to the Aether, which has to serve as medium for the effects of inertia. But this conception of the Aether to which we are led by Mach's way of thinking differs essentially from the Aether as conceived by Newton, by Fresnel, and by Lorentz. Mach's Aether not only conditions the behaviour of inert masses, but is also conditioned in its state by them.”
The difference between Mach’s aether and Newton’s absolute space appears to be that Mach’s aether interacts with matter. Einstein seemed to be acknowledging that Mach may be on to something. Super Relativity theory would agree in principle with Mach. The physical properties of space are revealed by space’s interaction with matter. What happens is space, conditions matter and at the same time, is conditioned by matter. Einstein never really explained what inertia is. According to Super Relativity when unbalanced charged particles move in an accelerated fashion through space, a contraction occurs. More precisely inertia is the act of the contraction of space around the particle that is in a state of accelerated motion. This change in the state of space that surrounds the accelerating particle is what causes the resistance to acceleration and causes a drag to be placed upon accelerating matter. That is space conditioning the matter whenever it accelerates within the aether. This by definition is the cause of (inertia). This same contraction is also the cause of gravity so this is why gravity and inertia appear to be the same thing. They are both caused by the action of accelerating matter with in space. While the force of gravity appears to be action at a distance it is really not action at a distance. Technically speaking according to Super Relativity there is no separation between any two gravitational objects because the space between the separate objects is directly connected by the solid continuous aether material. What gives the force of gravity the appearance of being action at a distance is the fact that transfer of force between any two separate objects takes time. The time it takes is because of the characteristic limitation imposed by the medium. Force transference takes time because the gravitational wave is limited to the finite speed of light. So Super Relativity concept of inertia is not like Mach’s as the cause of inertia is completely a local phenomenon. It is caused by the contraction of space that is adjacent to the accelerating mass.
Einstein was just missing the key element which is Super Relativity’s fundamental explanation, and extension to Einstein’s arguments. He never made the cosmic connection to the Super Relativity concept, which is the action of particles upon space and from space by accelerated motion of unbalanced charged particles. Their motion, relative to the absolute background of space, is the central cause of both inertia and the gravitational field. Therefore inertia and gravitational mass are also evidence of the physical and mechanical properties of space.
“Mach's idea finds its full development in the Aether of the General Theory of Relativity. According to this theory the metric qualities of the continuum of Spacetime differ in the environment of different points of Spacetime, and are partly conditioned by the Matter existing outside of the territory under consideration. This Space-time variability of the reciprocal relations of the standards of space and time, or, perhaps, the recognition of the fact that "empty space" in its physical relation is neither homogeneous nor isotropic, compelling us to describe its state by ten functions (the gravitation potentials ), has, I think, finally disposed of the view that space is physically empty. But therewith the conception of the Aether has again acquired an intelligible content, although this content differs widely from that of the Aether of the mechanical undulatory theory of light. The Aether of the General Theory of Relativity is a medium which is itself devoid of all mechanical and kinemassic qualities, but helps to determine mechanical (and electromagnetic) events.”
Here, Einstein described what he thought space is like, physically. He described it as having metric qualities or simply the measure in different regions of a real space-time continuum. He proposed as a description of space, a new abstraction, which sees space as a relativistic space-time continuum, with deformation potentials. He sought to dispose of space as having any type of stationary aether, with a concept of absolute space. Super Relativity disagrees with this last concept, although Einstein’s statement is true for inertial frames of reference. Super Relativity says that accelerated motion of massive particles, reveals evidence of absolute motion. So on this point we have difference of opinion.
The crux of this disagreement is that there is a physics to the geometry and topology of space, as it relates to the matter and energy that resides within it. The important question here is whether geometry or a topology can be physical. Super Relativity says that there is a connection between the aether and space, and between the aether, matter and energy. The connection can again only be manifested when unbalanced charged particles accelerate through space. Therefore Super Relativity says that the topology and geometry of space as it is expressed by fields of force is a real true physical entity of our reality. It is even more than that as this topology is the central cause of all phenomena.
Einstein indicated that space is never physically empty, that it has a physical quality which has an effect on matter and energy, but he goes no further.
“What is fundamentally new in the Aether of the General Theory of Relativity as opposed to the Aether of Lorentz consists in this, that the state of the former is at every place determined by connections with the Matter and the state of the Aether in neighbouring places, which are amenable to law in the form of differential equations; whereas the state of the Lorentzian Aether in the absence of electromagnetic fields is conditioned by nothing outside itself, and is everywhere the same. The Aether of the General Theory of Relativity is transmuted conceptually into the Aether of Lorentz if we substitute constants for the functions of space which describe the former, disregarding the causes which condition its state. Thus we may also say, I think, that the Aether of the General Theory of Relativity is the outcome of the Lorentzian Aether, through 'relativation'.”
Einstein appeared to have only one objection to the Lorentz aether, that is, that it only interacts with matter to generate electromagnetic fields. Einstein believed that his new aether concept from General Relativity has a greater function than the Lorentz aether, as it also explains inertia and gravitation. Super Relativity agrees with this concept. Unfortunately in Einstein’s time the knowledge of particles like quarks did not exist, so he could not make the connection to what is the central cause of the gravitational field.
There are others who share the same idea that if Einstein had just had more information about all the particles that exist he would have succeeded in his quest for the Unified Field Theory.
“He failed in part because subatomic physics was in its infancy, unable to yield sufficient data. Physics had to wait years before “powerful atom smashers would clarify the nature of subatomic matter,” notes Michio Kaku in his reverential Einstein's Cosmos. Had Einstein had our wealth of data, Kaku hazards, he might have succeeded. As it was, knowing nothing of the bosons, gluons, muon neutrinos, partons, leptons, and quarks—the whole atomic stew, as it were—he could not form a “picture” to guide his mathematics.”
Feldman, Burton (2011-09-01). Einstein's Genius Club (Kindle Locations 2648-2653). Skyhorse Publishing. Kindle Edition.
I believe that Einstein knew gravity had something to with rotating particles, but there was not enough known about the atom and quarks for him to see the pattern. He also knew that inertia must come from the same type of action, but he did not possess the mechanical model to explain what was behind inertia. Super relativity goes beyond this partial understanding and explains mechanically how both are generated by the motion of accelerated unbalanced charges. This is the key advancement provided to General Relativity by Super Relativity.
“As to the part which the new Aether is to play in the physics of the future we are not yet clear. We know that it determines the metrical relations in the Spacetime continuum, e.g. the configurative possibilities of solid bodies as well as the gravitational fields; but we do not know whether it has an essential share in the structure of the electrical elementary particles constituting Matter. Nor do we know whether it is only in the proximity of ponderable masses that its structure differs essentially from that of the Lorentzian Aether; whether the geometry of spaces of cosmic extent is approximately Euclidean. But we can assert by reason of the relativistic equations of gravitation that there must be a departure from Euclidean relations, with spaces of cosmic order of magnitude, if there exists a positive mean density, no matter how small, of the Matter in the universe. In this case the universe must of necessity be spatially unbounded and of finite magnitude, its magnitude being determined by the value of that mean density.”
The first two sentences here, reveal how much was not known about the structure of matter and the origin of force in Einstein’s time, and is still not known now. Einstein stated that space is non-Euclidean and General Relativity proves that. He also said that space is unbounded but finite, which is a reasonable assumption from what we have so far observed.
“If we consider the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field from the standpoint of the Aether hypothesis, we find a remarkable difference between the two. There can be no space nor any part of space without gravitational potentials; for these confer upon space its metrical qualities, without which it cannot be imagined at all. The existence of the gravitational field is inseparably bound up with the existence of space. On the other hand a part of space may very well be imagined without an electromagnetic field; thus in contrast with the gravitational field, the electromagnetic field seems to be only secondarily linked to the Aether, the formal nature of the electromagnetic field being as yet in no way determined by that of gravitational Aether. From the present state of theory it looks as if the electromagnetic field, as opposed to the gravitational field, rests upon an entirely new formal motif, as though nature might just as well have endowed the gravitational Aether with fields of quite another type, for example, with fields of a scalar potential, instead of fields of the electromagnetic type.”
Here Einstein concluded that the aether (space), may very well be imagined without an electromagnetic field, and that therefore the field does not seem to be primarily linked to the aether, and is not determined by the aether. He does say that the gravitational field is inseparably bound up with space. However, if he truly believed this, why did he spend the rest of his life trying to prove that the electromagnetic field and the gravitational field are directly linked. That pursuit was described in his Unified Field theory. I believe that his intuition was always that the two fields were linked in some way. It just appeared at the time that they were not both bound to the aether. Super Relativity attempts to confirm that both electromagnetism and gravity are bound to the aether.
The Relationships forces and objects to the aether
Central Cause of particle motion as it relates to the aether
Central Cause of magnetism as it relates to the aether
Central cause of Gravity as it relates to the aether
“Since according to our present conceptions the elementary particles of Matter are also, in their essence, nothing else than condensations of the electromagnetic field, our present view of the universe presents two realities which are completely separated from each other conceptually, although connected causally, namely, gravitational Aether and electromagnetic field, or as they might also be called space and Matter.”
Einstein’s final conclusion was that matter is a condensate of electromagnetism. This suggests that although he knew that space and matter are connected, he did not have the details of that connection. In Super Relativity there is no separation between matter, energy and space. Matter and energy are both special forms of spatial deformations or more precisely spatial configurations. Energetic particles are of a type which are composed of balanced charges that travel in straight line non-accelerated fashion. Therefore they do not generate mass while proceeding through space. Massive particles are unbalanced charges that accelerate through space and generate a gravitational field. Space is the aether that is the material substance of our reality and it is the underlining plenum in which it all takes place and is the material substance that the particles are made from. The motions of the particles within space cause deformations (what we call fields or forces) in the aether field and cause action at a distance.
The evidence that defines particle geometry
The sine wave is a simple two dimensional representation of a three dimensional object. According to Super Relativity each value on the graph is equal to a physical degree of rotation of the aether material. Hence, particles are geometric configurations of space. This simple sine wave represents the photon geometric configuration. Next we see (below) a three dimensional representation of the cosine.
View the animation of this image at this link. You will see that the cosine wave has a fundamental relationship to the circle.
When you look at this animation, you should be able to see that the sine wave (a two dimensional representation for a three dimensional object) rotating along the x axis.
Having established that particles are merely geometric configurations primarily composed of spatial inversions or rotations, we must now link the electromagnetic field to the gravitational field, bound as they are, to motion through the aether.
This connects the Lorentzian aether to Einstein’s Gravitational aether, as the accelerated motion of all particles creates the inertial and gravitational effects we see in nature. It would appear then, that the Theory of Special Relativity confirms the following statement by Einstein.
“Of course it would be a great advance if we could succeed in comprehending the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field together as one unified conformation.”
“Then for the first time the epoch of theoretical physics founded by Faraday and Maxwell would reach a satisfactory conclusion. The contrast between Aether and Matter would fade away, and, through the General Theory of Relativity, the whole of physics would become a complete system of thought, like geometry, kinematics, and the theory of gravitation. An exceedingly ingenious attempt in this direction has been made by the mathematician H. Weyl, but I do not believe that his theory will hold its ground in relation to reality. Further, in contemplating the immediate future of theoretical physics we ought not unconditionally to reject the possibility that the facts comprised in the quantum theory may set bounds to the field theory beyond which it cannot pass.”
The only unification we need is that of electromagnetism to gravity. According to Super Relativity there are three states of existence in our physical reality.
“Recapitulating, we may say that according to the General Theory of Relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an Aether. According to the General Theory of Relativity space without Aether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this Aether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it.”
Super Relativity describes the linear motion of objects as more of a change in the state of the aether from one moment to the next. On the other hand one can identify the flight of a bullet through the air, as any such missile displaces the air because they are two discreet objects in space. As a result, their relative speeds can be compared. Matter and energy particles are geometric configurations of the aether which travel within the stationary object, not apart from it. Therefore, the existence of the aether can be implied to exist only when we notice that acceleration of any object through it causes observable effects.
Another notable quote comes from John Bell. In an interview with Paul Davies in “the Ghost in the Atom”, Bell suggested that an aether theory might help resolve the EPR paradox, by allowing a reference frame in which signals go faster than light.
Bell’s opinion, resonates with me, and on my website there is an explanation of how the aether could create a superluminal connection between phase correlated particles.
“He argued that the Lorentz contraction is perfectly coherent, not inconsistent with relativity, and could produce an aether theory that works well with the Michelson-Morley experiment. He further stated that the aether was wrongly rejected on purely philosophical grounds: "what is unobservable does not exist"
“Einstein at the time of special Relativities release initially found the non-aether theory simpler and more elegant, but as Bell pointed out, that didn't rule it out. Besides the arguments based on his interpretation of quantum mechanics, Bell also suggested resurrecting the aether theory because it is a useful pedagogical device. In other words, many problems are solved more easily by imagining the existence of an aether. Now since we have apparently found out that faster than light speed is possible, Bell may very well be right. If superluminal particle speeds and connections do exist, then our concept of locality must change”.
Why have I brought up the somewhat nostalgic concept of the aether? Simply put, it is my belief that we have made a mistake in concluding that there is no aether. This occurred because the M&M experiment failed to prove the existence of an aether wind. It now seems obvious that the idea of linear motion ought not to be applied to it, as this variable could obfuscate the issue of whether the aether is observable or not, which it may well be when the absolute motion of accelerating objects is considered.
Inertia is Proof of the Aether
Inertia is an effect that can be felt whenever we accelerate through space. This resistance to acceleration is an indicator absolute motion. For example, imagine a Universe with a single object in it, say a rocket. Assuming that the rules of nature are the same in this Universe, as in our own, whenever the rocket accelerates we are forced back in our seats. The feeling of being pulled back in your seat, the resistance to a change in movement, is solely because of the rocket’s acceleration in space. It has nothing to do with motion relative to any other object in the Universe. This clearly indicates that there is some sort of interaction between space and the rocket accelerating through space.
Newton gave us the first two laws of physics.
1. An object at rest tends to stay at rest.
According to Super Relativity, these laws say that an object at rest and an object with a linear non-accelerating motion are essentially in the same state relative to the aether. Therefore we have no detection of inertial resistance until we accelerate or decelerate. Inertia is manifested only when there is a change relative to the stationary aether background. It is not relative to anything else. If the aether did not exist and space was a void or empty container, there would be nothing to create the effect of inertia, as surely accelerating or decelerating through nothing would offer no resistance. Therefore, logically space must be some sort of material object.
Faster than Light Neutrino Explanation
Supposing that there is an aether, and space is some sort of material object, then space is most likely some sort of elastic solid. Having made this assumption, and using the concepts from Super Relativity defined above we can now explore the possibility of how neutrinos can travel faster than light. All of the discussion above was required so that the existence of the aether could be established. The aether is required to explain the motion of all particles and their uniquely, individual maximum velocities (IMV).
At this point, it is important to determine the actual velocities of particles, other than the photon. It appears that scientific experiments have never verified the maximum velocities of any other particle but the photon. According to Super Relativity Theory every particle such as electrons and quarks in their orbits, and so on, would have a different maximum velocity. Once these determinations are made, a clear pattern should emerge.
The greater the unbalance of charge a particle possesses the lower the maximum velocity will be and the greater its mass.
This rule should be applied to fundamental particles only. This principle at times appears to be violated as there are some particles in the Standard Model which seem to disobey the principle. One example is the Z boson which has zero charge and lots of mass. In cases like this, it is possible to have a composite particle with a (balanced charge) and still have mass. This obviously confuses the issue, as it seems to violate what I just said. However, careful analysis reveals that these composite particles, which are not fundamental particles, manifest mass because their component parts are individually moving particles composed of equal amounts of opposite charges. Therefore the separate parts of the composite particle are unbalanced charges moving in an accelerated motion. From the perspective of Super Relativity, a Z Boson is not so much a particle, but a loosely knit by-product of some other particle collision, which results in a temporary state, almost immediately decaying again into a fermion and its anti-particle. Therefore this principle of Super Relativity only applies to fundamental particles that do not decay into something else.
For the short moments of existence for particles such as the Z boson, the movement of the internal component parts of these types of non-fundamental particles are an orbital type of accelerated motion, and the rule stated above explains why these seemingly balanced charge particles generate mass. As the Z boson is really composed of two unbalanced particles spinning about each other, the rule is still applicable. Therefore the Super Relativity axiom above is technically not violated.
In summation, Super Relativity says: the mass of any object is obtained by the accelerated motion of unbalanced charged objects. All fundamental particles are composed of both positive and negative charges, and for some particles like the electron which has a mainly negative charge, the amount of that charge can be disproportionately distributed.
Explanation of the Central Cause of Particle Motion and Maximum Velocity
Why do particles like photons move and why does the speed of light have the numeric value that it has?
If you ask many scientists these questions today, the answer is often unsatisfactory as they might use a quantum mechanics explanation that has nothing to do with commonsense concepts of physically discrete objects moving through space. As far as microscopic particles are concerned, the notion of objects in space with positions and momentum is considered obsolete, so the answer could contain phrases like “electrons do not really move because they exist as a wave of probabilities, which form electron shells of various shapes”.
There are excellent mathematical formulae which describe this phenomenon, and can be used to accurately predict the behavior of electrons or any particle for that matter. However, quantum mechanics can not accurately predict an individual particle event. This is in agreement with James Clerk Maxwell beliefs as noted in his comment from, “Five of Maxwell’s Papers”
“Two theories of the constitution of bodies have struggled for victory with various fortunes since the earliest ages of speculation: one is the theory of a universal plenum, the other is that of atoms and void. The theory of the plenum is associated with the doctrine of mathematical continuity, and its mathematical methods are those of the Differential Calculus, which is the appropriate expression of the relations of continuous quantity. The theory of atoms and void leads us to attach more importance to the doctrines of integral numbers and definite proportions; but, in applying dynamical principles to the motion of immense numbers of atoms, the limitation of our faculties forces us to abandon the attempt to express the exact history of each atom, and to be content with estimating the average condition of a group of atoms large enough to be visible. This method of dealing with groups of atoms, which I may call the statistical method, and which in the present state of our knowledge is the only available method of studying the properties of real bodies, involves an abandonment of strict dynamical principles, and an adoption of the mathematical methods belonging to the theory of probability.”
Maxwell, James Clerk (2004-01-01). Five of Maxwell's Papers (pp. 33-34). Public Domain Books. Kindle Edition.
Now, it is not the intention of this article to cast aspersions on quantum mechanics in any way, and I will point out why I disagree with this technique. Even though quantum mechanics can accurately predict particle behavior and interactions using a statistical method, it does not explain how these objects physically and/or mechanically interact, nor how or why they are in perpetual motion. The foundational questions of nature therefore cannot be answered using quantum mechanics despite current belief that says it can. There are many interpretations for quantum theory and no one knows which of any of the explanations are correct, if indeed there is a correct option. It is therefore possible that although quantum mechanics as a mathematical tool works very well in describing the behavior of microscopic phenomena, it is no more than a mathematical metaphor for the description of reality, and therefore is not actually describing how things work. As a result, it is not a theory, and certainly not a theory of everything. In contrast to quantum mechanics, classical mechanics can and does provide a satisfying and meaningful answer for the explanation of how our reality physically works.
The answer to the question of photonic motion has been available for the last 100 years. A lot of good work has been done by scientists as far back as Descartes on these issues, and continuing right until the early 1900s. Most of the work was concerned with the relationship between what fields are, what particles are, and how they related to the aether. Embedded in the works of Newton, Maxwell, Lorentz, Faraday and others, I have found the answer.
The speed of light, its movement and its value are determined by the photon’s interaction with space itself. I have discovered a set of two interface rules, which determine how photons and all particles interact with space.
Rule 1. The value for a particle’s maximum speed is determined by the particle interface to the aether medium. The particle interface is composed of space’s ability to support and manifest the electrostatic and magnetic fields. There are two component parts for this interface.
These two properties of space completely determine how fast space can react to, and transmit an electromagnetic wave. Currently, many physicists believe that space is simply an empty void. If that were really true how could something that is nonexistent, have any value other than zero? How could it have properties with non-zero values such as permittivity and permeability? Surely this is more evidence that the aether does exist, because a non-existent empty void consisting of nothing cannot possess any physical properties.
It has recently been announced that the neutrino has been found to be traveling faster than the speed of light. This is the most neutral and well balanced charged particle. Is it not an amazing coincidence, as Super Relativity theory predicts that this very particle would be the candidate for superluminal speed. Thus, the neutrino must have a physical construction in which the amount of negative to positive charge is more balanced and therefore it must be even more neutral than the photon. The more unbalanced the ratio of positive to negative charge a fundamental particle has, the heavier (more massive) and slower the particle’s maximum velocity will be.
Rule 2. The Central Cause of Particle Motion
The central cause for the motion of any particle, including light, is in the particle’s geometric configuration. Super Relativity Theory states that each particle is nothing more than a region of space that has been inverted or twisted mechanically. This inversion cannot be destroyed or unraveled, but it can be transformed using a great deal of force, typically via high energy particle collision.
It is important to understand that all fundamental particles including the photon and neutrino possess the property of perpetual motion. Their perpetual movement is an important fact that is not fully understood by modern science. I classify this motion as being a perpetual motion machine of the third kind. This means that, “it is a system that completely eliminates friction and other dissipative forces, to maintain motion forever (due to its inertia).”
This is an obscure category for classifying perpetual motion machines in which friction and other dissipative forces have to be non-existent within their systems of operation in order for them to work. Fortunately since space does not impede objects that are in a constant rate of motion, it creates the possibility for perpetual motion of particles. The Universe has to work this way. Regarding unbalanced negatively or positively charged particles, the process is slightly different. These particles travel in arcs and ellipses, in an accelerated manner, creating an inertial state that limits them to a lower maximum speed. These unbalanced charges with mass will still move in an unimpeded fashion with their maximum velocities being slower than that of light.
According to Super Relativity, the causal nexus of all particle motion comes as a direct result of the physical geometry of the particles. Electrostatic charge is a spatial inversion which causes a rotational stretching of space. There are two types of rotation, clockwise and counter clockwise, and these correspond to positive and negative charge. The spatial rotations cause movement by decreasing spatial density in the area of rotation. The resulting deformation makes the elastic solid stretch in the direction of the spin. Imagine an air bubble forming on the bottom of the ocean floor. It rises because the density of the bubble is less than the surrounding water. The bubble rises because there is a pressure gradient in the water. The density of the water above the bubble is less than the density of the water below the bubble. This pressure gradient in the water is what causes the bubble to rise to the surface as the increased pressure below pushes the bubble up.
Now the same principle applied to particles is what causes their motion. A particle that has an equal amount of both positive and negative charge, which is distributed evenly across the x axis of the particle, would show no movement. In this case the spatial deformation would be equal on both sides, and correspondingly, the spatial density and pressure will be equal as well. Therefore, there must be asymmetry somewhere in the physical geometry, otherwise the particle will not move. The solution to this dilemma is straight forward. The charge distribution across the x-axis must be asymmetrical. See drawing below:
Figure 1 (Particle is moving from the left to the right)
This diagram demonstrates how an object like a photon or neutrino can have an equal amount of charge, yet have an asymmetrical construction capable of causing a pressure wave to form.
Notice that in the first half of the sine wave, the magnitude of the charge is small but the distance across the x axis is larger. In the second half of the sine wave, the negative magnitude is greater, but the distance across the x axis is less, leaving us with an equal volume of overall charge. Analyzing the object from front to back, there is an uneven amount of charge density distribution. This is the central cause of particle motion, as the twisting rotation caused by an electrostatic charge deformation stretches space. When the charge rotation is compacted more on one side of the x-axis than on the other, there is a difference in the spatial density. The side that has the greater charge density will have a corresponding decrease in spatial density, and it is this side that will become the leading edge of the particle. The uneven pressure density on one side versus the other forms a pressure wave, with the particle being pushed forward from the denser region to the less dense one. In Figure 1 above, the particle will be moving from the left to the right and it exists in nature as a simple pressure wave. If it has equal amounts of charge, it will travel in a straight line in a non-accelerated way at a maximum velocity through a particular medium. If the charge is unequal, the particle will move in an arc, thereby creating a spatial contraction along the circumference of the elliptical path, this type of motion causes the manifestation of mass in the object and results in slower velocity.
The neutrino is a mysterious particle. At first glance, it should not be able to move faster than the photon because recent experiments indicated that the three different types all have mass. However, they are very difficult to detect and analyze, and the history of experiments concerning neutrinos has yielded about 30 years of false signals. In order for it to be moving faster than light, according to Super Relativity, the neutrino must be mass-less. Furthermore, they oscillate. If this is true, then there is a possibility according to Super Relativity Theory for them to, at times, be moving faster than light.
Assuming that the scientific establishment’s current beliefs about the basic properties of the neutrino are essentially correct, but with some reservations about the technical details of the oscillations and accuracy of the mass estimates, we can assume that its maximum velocity is faster than light’s. Notice I use velocity here and not the word speed.
According to Super Relativity principles, in order for any particle to exceed the speed of light, it would have less mass than a photon. There is strong possibility that the photon is not completely neutral and that there is a slight asymmetry in the balance of positive to negative charge. A more neutrally balanced charge would lead to less mass and to a correspondingly higher velocity in the medium of outer space. If this is true and the photon is not perfectly neutral, then according to Super Relativity there is an opening for some other particle to exceed the speed of light. We already know according to Super Relativity, that the photon along with every other particle must possess an uneven charge distribution across the x-axis, which enables forward motion via the creation of a self created pressure wave. So if there is even a slight imbalance in the amount of charge then the photon will be slowed slightly.
Assuming that there is an oscillation of the neutrino state and a smooth, continuous transition in its mass as it oscillates, then there is also the possibility that as the neutrino oscillates it may achieve an even more perfect balance of charge than the photon.
According to Super Relativity theory, during the neutrino’s oscillation when it achieves an even more perfect charge balance than the photon, there will be a jump in speed and for as long as it remains in this state, it will move faster than the photon. Thus, as the neutrino oscillates it is also changing velocity, sometimes moving faster than light and sometimes slower. Therefore for it to permanently stay ahead of a photon, it will have to have a significant burst in speed for enough duration to permanently keep it ahead of the photon.
To prove this theory correct simply measure neutrino speed at various distances. When we limit the distance travelled to less than one oscillation, the neutrino will be measured at times to be going slower than the speed of light and other times faster than the speed of light. The rate of speed will depend upon what part of the cycle it was in when traversing the distance. However, after the first oscillation has completed, the neutrino will have caught up to and passed the photon moving further ahead after each cycle. Therefore its maximum velocity is dependent on the rate of oscillation and the distance between source and detector. The greater the distance between the source emission of the neutrino and the detector, the greater will be the accuracy of its measured speed.
As the oscillation will most likely be both longitudinal and transverse, it is possible that the electrostatic field amplitudes vary as well. Depending on the phase difference in these two types of oscillations, an additional boost may be given to the neutrino’s speed if the leading half cycle is more compressed along the x-axis. This extra amplitude boosts propulsion.
Figure 2 (The particle is moving from the right to the left.)
It should now be easy to understand why the neutrino moves with greater velocity than the photon. In Super Relativity theory, a photon has a no mass because it is composed of equal amounts of opposite charge, totaling zero. The photon’s balance of charge is slightly less than that of the neutrino. There is ample evidence for this. The evidence is in the fact that neutrinos have almost no interaction with matter, whereas the photon has a much stronger interaction with other matter and energy particles. This is a clear indication that the photon’s charge balance is less than that of the neutrino.
Proposed Experiment to Confirm Super Relativity’s Idea of the Neutrino’s Greater than Light Speed Motion.
There is an experiment that can be done to confirm the concepts of Super Relativity.
First, determine the frequency or oscillation rate of the neutrino. Make measurements to determine the exact velocity. Most important, vary the distances from source to detector. When the cycle reaches the neutrality region, the neutrino will be traveling faster than light and will do so for each cycle thereafter. If the speed of the neutrino is measured for less than a complete cycle, it may on occasion be measured to be slower than light. The neutrino oscillation hopefully will be slow enough for the detection of the deviation in its speed over a period of time, as its rate of motion constantly changes over the entire oscillation. This deviation in speed is proof positive of Super Relativity Theory.
All particles may be nothing more than spatial configurations, special indestructible geometries composed primarily of spatial inversions, called electrostatic charge. There are two possible rotations, clockwise and counter-clockwise, which are the physical explanation for negative and positive charges.
The photon’s zero total for charge does not mean a complete absence of charge, but rather that the charge is balanced. Spatial inversions or charge is what makes everything happen. When charges are balanced the particles move in a straight line and produce little or no mass. When the negative and positive charges are unbalanced, the particles move in a curved, accelerated fashion. This causes the space in the immediate vicinity of the accelerating particle to contract, slowing it, and causing it to exhibit inertia or mass, and to correspondingly move at a rate below the light speed.
In the case of the neutrino, for a short time during each cycle, the charge balance varies as it moves through space, giving it a value of mass less than that of the photon, thereby allowing it to manifest different masses, and causing it to accelerate or decelerate. In the accelerating phase of its oscillation, the neutrino moves faster than light.
Mass is created by the accelerated motion of unbalanced charged particles. The motion of all particles is caused by asymmetrical geometry in their physical constructions. An uneven distribution of charge creates a self-sustaining pressure wave in which the particle travels toward the less spatially dense, more highly inverted region, and is pushed away from the trailing portion of the particle which is composed of a higher spatial density.
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